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Health, Wellness, Sex and Body Discuss Tuberculosis at the General Discussion; Doctors Warn Of New Drug-Resistant TB... On World Tuberculosis Day, Doctors Warn Of New Drug-Resistant Bacteria March 24, 2017 — ...

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Old 03-24-2017, 08:09 PM
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Doctors Warn Of New Drug-Resistant TB...

On World Tuberculosis Day, Doctors Warn Of New Drug-Resistant Bacteria
March 24, 2017 — Friday marks the United Nations’ World Tuberculosis Day, aimed at raising awareness of a disease that kills an estimated 1.8 million people every year. Six countries account for nearly two-thirds of the cases: India, Indonesia, China, Nigeria, Pakistan and South Africa.
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The date commemorates the day in 1882 when German scientist Dr. Robert Koch announced that he had discovered the cause of the disease, the TB bacillus. It remains the most deadly infectious disease in the world. “Every single day 5,000 people lose their lives because of tuberculosis. TB hits particularly those vulnerable populations that include migrants, refugees, prisoners, people who are marginalized in their societies,” said Mario Raviglione, the World Health Organization’s Global Tuberculosis Program Director.

Drug-resistant strains

In recent years drug-resistant strains of TB have taken hold around the world, posing an increasingly urgent public health threat. These strains often go undetected and are spread across populations. “In South Africa, for example, TB is the commonest cause of death and the disease is out of control in Africa,” said Dr. Keertan Dheda, head of the Division of Pulmonology at the University of Cape Town.


A doctor examines a tuberculosis patient in a government TB hospital in Allahabad, India, March 24, 2014. An estimated 1.8 million people die every year of the disease.

But there is new hope as a small number of new drugs have become available. “For the first time after about four to five decades, we have two drugs. One is called bedaquiline,” Dheda said. “That has now been registered in South Africa and is available to treat many patients with drug-resistant TB. And there’s another new drug called delamanid, that’s not yet licensed in South Africa but is available in other countries.”

New drugs must be used carefully

In a report published in the Lancet medical journal, Dheda and his co-authors warn that the effectiveness of these new drugs could be rapidly lost if they aren’t used correctly. “There are several case reports globally of patients that have already become resistant to both delamanid and bedaquiline. We need to change our strategy,” Dheda said. “We need to go out into the community and find these cases. We have to address the major drivers of TB, which are poverty and overcrowding, nutritional deprivation, alcohol abuse, cigarette smoking and biomass fuel exposure,” Dheda added in a VOA interview Thursday. The report warns the new drugs must be prescribed as individually targeted treatments with clear dosing guidelines, to prevent further resistant TB strains from emerging.

On World Tuberculosis Day, Doctors Warn Of New Drug-Resistant Bacteria
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Protecting Rights of TB Patients Critical in Ending Global Epidemic
March 23, 2017 — In advance of World TB day (March 24), the World Health Organization is warning the battle to wipe out the global tuberculosis epidemic will not be won unless stigma, discrimination and marginalization of TB patients is brought to an end. VOA was in Geneva at the launch of new WHO ethics guidance for the treatment of people with tuberculosis.
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Progress is being made toward achieving the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal of ending the global TB epidemic by 2030. The World Health Organization reports 49 million lives have been saved since 2000. But, much remains to be done. Data from 2015 show more than 10.4 million people fell ill and 1.8 million died of tuberculosis, with most cases and fatalities occurring in developing countries. The World Health Organization says stigma and discrimination against TB patients hamper efforts to wipe out this deadly disease.

WHO Global TB Program medical officer Ernesto Jaramillo says vulnerable people, such as migrants, prisoners, ethnic minorities, marginalized women and children are most likely to suffer abuse, neglect and rejection. He says this prevents them from seeking treatment for tuberculosis. “Having new tools for diagnosis, and treatment of TB is not sufficient if there are not clear standards to ensure that vulnerable people can have access in a matter of priority to these tools in a way that the end TB strategy can really serve the interest not only of individuals, but also the interests of public health in general ," said Jaramillo.

WHO Global TB program director Mario Raviglione tells VOA no country, rich or poor, is immune from getting tuberculosis. He warns marginalizing patients with TB is dangerous. “You cannot eliminate a disease like TB thinking that you build walls or you isolate your country," said Raviglione. "TB is an airborne disease. It travels by air. So, you have a Boeing 747 that leaves Malawi tonight and it comes to Switzerland tomorrow morning and there you go. So, it has to be faced from a global perspective.”

New WHO ethical guidance includes actions to overcome barriers of stigma, discrimination and marginalization of people with tuberculosis. The agency says protecting the human rights of all those affected will save many lives and will make it possible to end this global scourge.

Protecting Rights of TB Patients Critical in Ending Global Epidemic
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Old 05-31-2017, 05:59 AM
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Tweaking vancomycin to make it more powerful to fight infection...

Scientists ‘Supercharge’ Powerful Antibiotic
May 30, 2017 - Scientists have tweaked a powerful antibiotic, called vancomycin, so it is once more powerful against life-threatening bacterial infections. Researchers say the more powerful compound could eliminate the threat of antibiotic resistance for many years to come.
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Antibiotic resistance, in which microbes no longer respond to drugs, is quickly becoming a global health emergency. Of particular concern are so-called “superbugs,” a handful of pathogens that patients acquire in hospitals and other health care settings. Patients recovering from surgery are particularly vulnerable to the resistant, hospital-borne infections, which put them at high risk of death.


A microbiologist works with tubes of bacteria samples at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia

Researchers at The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California, modified vancomycin, invented 60 years ago and considered a last resort treatment against many of these infections. They made a key change to its molecular structure, interfering with how the bacterium, enterococcus, makes protective cells walls. In a new study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, investigators describe how the change made vancomycin 1,000 times more effective against both drug-resistant enterococci and the original forms of the microorganism.

‘Total cures’

The modification is in addition to two previous changes made by the Scripps team that improved the drug’s potency, so less of it is needed to treat an infection. Lead researcher Dale Boger, who co-chairs the institution’s Department of Chemistry, said it is difficult for enterococcus to find a way around three independent mechanisms of action. “Even if they found a solution to one of those,” said Boger, “the organisms would still be killed by the other two.” The challenge now for researchers is to reduce the number of steps it takes in the lab to boost vancomycin’s effectiveness. Having redesigned the antibiotic’s molecular structure, Boger called streamlining its production the “easy part.”

Even if researchers are unable to simplify the way the improvements are made, Boger said efforts to supercharge vancomycin are worth it for the antibiotic’s lifesaving powers, calling the drugs “total cures” against bacterial infection. Given the growing failure of antibiotics to treat common infections, Boger said making the super-charged vancomycin molecule is important, even if it’s labor-intensive.

Scientists ?Supercharge? Powerful Antibiotic
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Old 06-16-2017, 02:20 AM
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Vitamin A a day could keep TB away...

Vitamin A Supplement May Thwart Tuberculosis Infection
June 15, 2017 — Family members who live with someone with tuberculosis may be shielded against the highly infectious disease by taking vitamin A. A new study finds that many of those who develop TB are deficient in the nutrient.
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In a study of 6,000 people in Lima, Peru, researchers found that those whose diets were lacking in vitamin A had a 10-fold increased risk of developing TB from an infected family member. Young people, between the ages of 10 and 19, were found to have 20 times the risk of developing tuberculosis through close exposure to an infected loved one. Researchers at Harvard Medical School found that having a vitamin A deficiency, common among some 30 percent of the world’s population in mostly developing nations, was a potent predictor of TB disease risk.


A girl is given vitamin A drops during a house-to-house vaccination campaign in Sana'a, Yemen Feb. 20, 2017. A new study found that many of those who develop TB are deficient in the nutrient.

They said supplementing peoples’ diets with vitamin A may be a powerful tool for preventing TB. Megan Murray of Harvard's Department of Global Health and Social Medicine said investigators followed the participants who lived with someone with TB for one year. All agreed to have their blood drawn at the start of the study. Over the course of the investigation, Murray said 192 people of the 6,000 became sick. Their blood samples, taken at the beginning of the study, were compared to those of other close family members who did not have TB.

‘Really surprised’ by result

“And, in those blood samples, people who had gotten TB were much more likely to have been vitamin A deficient or to be in the lower two quartiles of vitamin A level, so not even technically vitamin A deficient, but just lower than ... people who didn’t get TB. ... And we were really surprised by that result because it wasn’t something we were expecting or looking for,” said Murray. Murray said there’s scientific research that has shown the immune systems of people with vitamin A deficiency maybe negatively impacted, possibly making make them more susceptible to developing TB. The fact that more young people were at risk for tuberculosis infection, said researchers, suggested vitamin A may play an even greater role in the development of their immune systems. But Murray was careful to stress her study did not establish a cause-and-effect relationship between vitamin A deficiency and development of tuberculosis.

Murray was asked whether it might be possible to shield close family members from tuberculosis by giving them vitamin A supplements if they are found to be deficient. “The effect was so strong – as I say, it was so unexpected – that it does raise that question,” she replied. Murray said the next step is to study whether adding vitamin A to antibiotics, given to family members of a loved one with TB, would offer additional protection against the disease. Vitamin A deficiency is defined as less than 200 micrograms per liter of blood. The findings were published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases. The U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases funded the work.

https://www.voanews.com/a/vitamin-a-...s/3901971.html
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Old 06-16-2017, 02:24 AM
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Default Re: Tuberculosis

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Originally Posted by waltky View Post
Vitamin A a day could keep TB away...

Vitamin A Supplement May Thwart Tuberculosis Infection
June 15, 2017 — Family members who live with someone with tuberculosis may be shielded against the highly infectious disease by taking vitamin A. A new study finds that many of those who develop TB are deficient in the nutrient.
but vitamin a can be abused and lead to death. better under a doctor's direction
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Old 10-13-2017, 09:21 AM
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possum thinks dat's a mean lookin' moo-cow...

WHO Urges Action to Stop Animal TB, Its Spread to Humans
October 12, 2017 — The World Health Organization (WHO) is urging action to stop the spread of tuberculosis from animals to humans. The health agency warns zoonotic TB, as it is called, infects about 150,000 people and kills more than 12,000 every year.
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The WHO says TB in animals has been neglected for too long and it is time to put an end to that. So, for the first time, the organization is issuing a road map to combat animal tuberculosis and its transmission to humans. Anna Dean, technical officer for Zoonotic and Drug Resistant Tuberculosis at the WHO, told VOA zoonotic TB is a global problem, with the disease thriving mainly in Africa and to a lesser extent in the Asia region. “It is mainly transmitted to people through food; dairy products and milk that have not been heat-treated is the most common route. Less commonly, it can also be transmitted through the consumption of improperly prepared meat from diseased animals,” Dean said.


Cows graze in a field in Vlezenbeek near Brussels, Belgium, Aug. 7, 2015. Veterinary authorities in Western countries routinely cull cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis whereas similar protocols are less prevalent in developing countries.

Besides posing a major risk to food safety and human health, the WHO notes bovine TB threatens people’s livelihoods and results in major economic and trade barriers.

Dean said the best way to eliminate bovine TB is to slaughter diseased animals. She says that is generally not a hardship for wealthy countries such as the United States, where cattle herders tend to be compensated for their lost animals. Dean pointed out that in other parts of the world, doing so poses a challenge. “It is not the case obviously in African countries. To implement these animal health interventions requires a lot of economic - a lot of financial investment. So, I think to stop, to prevent TB in people, you need to first of all control the disease in animals,” she said. Dean added that improving food safety, which can be easily done, is also essential. For example, she says, boiling untreated milk is enough to kill TB and other important bacteria that can cause illness in people.

https://www.voanews.com/a/world-heal...s/4067411.html
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